A collection of 5 single page illustrations of Henry M Stanley 1871 expedition to find Dr. Livingstone.
Note: Sir Henry Morton Stanley, 1841–1904, an Anglo-American journalist and empire builder, was born in Denbigh, Wales. Originally named John Rowlands, he took the name of his adoptive father in New Orleans, where Stanley went in 1857. After fighting on both sides in the American Civil War, he drifted into journalism. His coverage of Lord Napier's Ethiopian campaign in 1868 for the New York Herald won him journalistic fame, and the Herald commissioned him to go to Africa to find David Livingstone. Stanley located the great explorer on Lake Tanganyika on Nov. 10, 1871, addressing him with the famous words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Failing to persuade Livingstone to leave Africa, Stanley returned to England with the news of his discovery. He found a mixed reception in England, where Livingstone's backers criticized Stanley's efforts and methods. Nevertheless, Stanley led a second expedition (1874–77), sponsored by newspapers, to further Livingstone's explorations. He followed the Congo River from its source to the sea, but he found the British uninterested in developing the region.
Stanley then accepted the invitation of Leopold II of Belgium to head another expedition. During this third journey (1879–84) he helped to organize the notorious Congo Free State, largely by persuading local chiefs to grant sovereignty over their land to the Belgian king. At the Berlin Conference (1884–85) he was instrumental in obtaining American support for Leopold's Congo venture. His last African journey (1887–89), to find Emin Pasha, helped to put Uganda into the British sphere of influence. A naturalized U.S. citizen, Stanley again became a British subject in 1892, sat in Parliament (1895–1900), and was knighted (1899). His spirited and often self-aggrandizing accounts of his adventures include How I Found Livingstone (1872), Through the Dark Continent (2 vol., 1878), In Darkest Africa (2 vol., 1890), and The Exploration Diaries of H. M. Stanley (ed. by R. Stanley and A. Neame, 1961). A British and American hero for about a century, Stanley has fared poorly in recent histories, which have revealed instances of his lying about events in his life, duplicity in some of his dealings, and many acts of brutality to Africans.
A collection of 13 illustrated pages from European periodicals on the travels of David Livingstone. T
Note: David Livingstone, 1813–1873, was a Scottish missionary and explorer in Africa and the first European to cross the African continent. From 1841 to 1852, while a medical missionary for the London Missionary Society in what is now Botswana, he crossed the Kalahari desert and reached (1849) Lake Ngami. He discovered the Zambezi River in 1851. Hoping to abolish the slave trade by opening Africa to Christian commerce and missionary stations, he traveled (1853) to Luanda on the west coast. Following the Zambezi River, he discovered and named Victoria Falls (1855) and reached the east coast at Quelimane, Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), in 1856. His Missionary Travels (1857) in South Africa is an account of that journey. Appointed British consul at Quelimane, he was given command of an expedition (1857–63) to explore the Zambezi region.
Livingstone returned to England (1864) and with his brother Charles wrote The Zambezi and Its Tributaries (1865). In 1866 he returned to Africa to seek the source of the Nile. He discovered lakes Mweru and Bangweula and in 1871 reached the Lualaba tributary of the Congo River. Sickness compelled his return to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika, where the journalist H. M. Stanley found him in 1871. Unable to persuade Livingstone to leave, Stanley joined him on a journey (1871–72) to the north end of Lake Tanganyika. In 1873 Livingstone died in the village of Chief Chitambo. African followers carried his body to the coast; it was sent to England and buried in Westminster Abbey. Livingstone's last journals were edited by Horace Waller (1874).
Collection of 12 illustrated pages from European periodicals on the voyages of Jean Baptiste Marchand. T
Note: Note: Jean Baptiste Marchand, (1863-1934), French general and African explorer, was born at Thoissey (Ain) on November 22, 1863. After four years' service in the ranks, he was, in March 1887, appointed a sub-lieutenant. In 1889 he was on active service in Senegal, was twice wounded and made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He was promoted lieutenant in January, 1890, captain in 1892, and commandant (chef de battalion) in 1898. In the latter year he carried out his historic march on, and occupation of, Fashoda, and for this he was promoted to the high grade of commander in the Legion of Honour, having been previously (July 1895) raised from the grade of chevalier to that of officer. In January, 1900 he became lieutenant colonel, fought in the Boxer Rebellion in China, and was made colonel two years later. On the outbreak of war in August, 1914 he was serving on the staff of the governor of Belfort; but in September he was appointed to command the Colonial Brigade of the XIV Corps. He distinguished himself in that capacity, was cited in army orders, and in February, 1915 was promoted a temporary-general of brigade. The following May he assumed command of the 10th (Colonial) Division. He was wounded in September, 1915, and was made a grand officer of the Legion of Honour. On March 25, 1916 he was made a substantive-general of brigade. In the following October he was again wounded, and on March 17, 1917 received a second mention for distinguished service. On April 4, 1917 he was promoted general of division and confirmed in his appointment as commander of the 10th Colonial Division - an appointment which he held throughout the later campaigns on the western front. He retired from the army in 1919 with a high reputation as a leader of troops in battle. He was given the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour in 1920. He died in 1934.