World War 1 & 2 Posters
Biography: René Viviani was born in Algeria in a family of Italian immigrants. His parliamentary career began in 1893, when he was elected deputy of the fifth ward in Paris. He retained this office until 1902, when he failed to be reelected, but four years later he was elected deputy of the Department of Creuse. In the same year he entered the cabinet of Georges Clemenceau. At an early age he associated himself with the Socialist party, soon becoming one of its most brilliant orators and prominent leaders. When the party was reorganized in 1904 into the Unified Socialist party, Viviani, like fellow Socialist Aristide Briand, stayed outside, and thenceforth called himself an Independent Socialist. He served as Minister of Public Instruction in the ministry of M. Doumergue. In the spring of 1914 an exceptionally radical chamber was elected, and for a while it seemed that they would be unable to agree upon any one for Premier, but finally, he was appointed Prime Minister on 13 June 1914, by President Poincaré. He received a vote of confidence of 370 to 137. The chief issues were the maintenance of the law requiring three years' service in the army and provision for a loan of 1,800,000,000 francs ($360,000,000) for military preparations. Viviani supported both of these measures. During the July Crisis, he was largely dominated by President Poincaré. He retained the premiership for the first year of the First World War, but his tenure was undistinguished. On 26 August 1914 Viviani reorganized his cabinet on a war basis with Alexandre Millerand replacing Adolphe Messimy as Minister of War. Along with President Poincaré and War Minister Millerand he attended a June 1915 meeting of Joffre (Commander-in-Chief) and his Army Group Commanders (Foch, Castelnau and Dubail), a rare attempt at political oversight at this stage of the war. By autumn 1915 Viviani's government was in trouble following the resignation of Delcassé as Foreign Minister, the unsuccessful western front offensive and the entry of Bulgaria into the war. Although he survived a no confidence vote by 372-9, there were many abstentions. General Gallieni agreed to replace Millerand as Minister of War, but other French politicians refused to join Viviani’s government, so he resigned on 27 October 1915. Viviani served as Vice-President of the Council of Ministers (Deputy PM) and Gallieni as War Minister in Aristide Briand's new ministry. In April 1917 Viviani led a mission to the USA, which had just entered the war "associated with" the Allies. He was overshadowed by Marshal Joffre, who attracted much more attention from the American press. During Viviani's time as prime minister, a law was adopted in July 1915 providing for special boards to fix such a wage for women employed in home-work in the clothing industry.
Broadside issued by the German command in Trieste to the local population warning them against hoarding wheat, corn and sunflower and that there will be consequences if they do not comply by the deadline to bring them in. Dated March 15, 1945, roughly 2 months before the wars end. Size: 50x70cm.
Original poster by Auguste Leroux from The Commission for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in France. Size 60x80cm.
Note: The Commission for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in France was established in 1917 The establishment of the Commission was more than an attempt to curb the spread of tuberculosis throughout France. Like the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission’s (RSC) campaign against hookworm in the American South, it was hoped that successful management of the disease would result in a more robust French public health system. The Commission also closely mirrored the strategy of the RSC, including: 1)Conducting a statistical survey to determine rates of disease throughout the country, both in rural and urban areas of France; 2) Establishing dispensaries where patients could be diagnosed and treated; 3)Providing additional training to French nurses and physicians; 4)Implementing a broad public education campaign.
The French proved to be particularly receptive to the public education campaign, which was led by Selskar Gunn. Large, colorful propaganda posters were used to create awareness of the disease, and Gunn’s team traveled throughout the country leading health exhibitions in trucks equipped with informative panels and films. The team also gave lectures and handed out pamphlets. Gunn’s campaign placed a particular focus on children to effect early changes in hygiene habits as a means of preventative care. Children learned such lessons through various methods, including school assignments, puppet shows and organized class trips to health exhibits.
From the start the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) campaign in France was a co-operative effort with the American Red Cross, existing French organizations devoted to the care of tuberculosis patients and the French Government. In its early plans for tuberculosis work, the IHD noted that:
The work will be done under the sanction and general administration of the French government, with the co-operation and under the supervision of the Comite Central d’assistance aux Militaires Tuberculeux. The work will be done in the main by France and the French people; the literature and exhibit material will be cast in the mold of the French mind; America will lend stimulus and direction and a limited amount of financial aid.
The RF saw its main role as teaching local authorities methods of organization and administration or, as described in the 1918 RF Annual Report, “organized team-play.” The Commission for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in France ended its activities in 1922 and its work was gradually handed over to French organizations. In 1924 the Vice-President of the Comité National de Défense contre la Tuberculose wrote to Gunn of the progress since the RF’s departure: “Your services were so well organized that we only had to persevere and follow the roads you had mapped out, and the results seem to us so remarkable that we have decided to keep in its entirety the whole organization which you bequeathed to us.” During its tenure the Commission was highly effective in treating tuberculosis in France. As a result of RF contributions, the number of dispensaries in France grew from 22 to 600, while the number of hospital beds available to tuberculosis patients rose from 8,000 to 30,000. In 1919 the French Parliament enacted a law requiring every French department to build a tuberculosis sanatorium or to arrange to have its patients sent to another department for treatment. The RF was also influential in helping to develop a general awareness of public health and the importance of hygiene in France.