A collection of 31 illustrations from French and Italian periodicals on the French war in Morocco in the early 20th century.
Note: Following Morocco’s first defeat to any European power in 200 years, Morocco gave up Sid Ifni to Spain according to the treaty of Tetouan in 1860.
Following the Madrid Conference in 1880, Morocco is forced to turn Tangier into a zone of international administration. This came after years of Spanish and French interference in Moroccan politics, generally to the benefit of their own citizens. Morocco had protested against this, but was by now so weak that it had to give up even more than before.
In 1894 Sultan Moulay Hassan died, and his son Abdu l-Aziz was only 10 years of age at the accession. During his reign, Europeans became the main advisors at the court, and local rulers became more and more independent from the sultan’s rule.
In 1904 France reached agreement with Great Britain and Italy on spheres of influence over Africa, leaving Morocco within the control of France. Similar agreeement is reached with Germany the following year.
In 1907 France occupied Oujda near the border to French controlled Algeria. Shortly afterward the French invade Casablanca. Spain, worried about its own position, sent 90,000 troops to Melilla, their own enclave in northeastern Morocco.
In 1910 Moulay Hafiz is trapped by the French, and forced to conclude an agreement, which took two years to negotiate. In 1912 the Treaty of Fez is signed. With this, France is given the right to defend Morocco. A similar treaty is signed with Spain, who occupied most of the northern coast, and areas in the deep south.